Georgian Court University
Getting Life in Proportion: Scale and Mapping
Grade Level: 6-8
Time Frame: 2 class periods
Introduction to Lesson:
In this lesson students will explore the use of pictures and maps to represent physical spaces. We will explore the concepts of scale and conversions between pictures, maps and real-world units. Conversions between kilometers and miles, meters and feet and meters to centimeters and kilometers will also be practiced within the context of the learning experience.
New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards
STANDARD 4.1 (Number and numerical operations) All students will develop number sense and will perform standard numerical operations and estimations on all types of numbers in a variety of ways.
A. Number Sense
· Explore the use of ratios and proportions in a variety of situations.
STANDARD 4.2 (Geometry and measurement) All students will develop spatial sense and the ability to use geometric properties, relationships, and measurement to model, describe and analyze phenomena.
D. Units of Measurement
· Convert measurement units within a system (e.g., 3 feet = ___ inches).
· Know approximate equivalents between the standard and metric systems (e.g., one kilometer is approximately 6/10 of a mile).
E. Measuring Geometric Objects
· Develop informal ways of approximating the measures of familiar objects (e.g., use a grid to approximate the area of the bottom of one's foot).
STANDARD 4.3 (Patterns and algebra) All students will represent and analyze relationships among variable quantities and solve problems involving patterns, functions, and algebraic concepts and processes
· Recognize, describe, extend, and create patterns involving whole numbers and rational numbers.
· Use patterns, relations, and linear functions to model situations.
o Using variables to represent unknown quantities
STANDARD 3.1 (Reading) All students will understand and apply the knowledge of sounds, letters, and words in written English to become independent and fluent readers, and will read a variety of materials and texts with fluency and comprehension.
A. Concepts About Print/Text
· Use a … glossary independently and appropriately.
C. Decoding and Word Recognition
· Apply knowledge of new words correctly
STANDARD 3.5 (Viewing and media literacy) All students will access, view, evaluate, and respond to print, nonprint, and electronic texts and resources.
A. Constructing Meaning
· Respond to and evaluate the use of illustrations to support text.
· Use graphs, charts, and diagrams to report data.
STANDARD 6.6 (Geography) All students will apply knowledge of spatial relationships and other geographic skills to understand human behavior in relation to the physical and cultural environment.
The World in Spatial Terms
· Distinguish among the distinct characteristics of maps, globes, graphs, charts, diagrams, and other geographical representations, and the utility of each in solving problems.
· Translate maps into appropriate spatial graphics to display geographical information.
· Explain the spatial concepts of relative and absolute location and distance.
· Estimate distances between two places on a map using a scale of miles, and use cardinal and intermediate directions when referring to a relative location.
· Use geographic tools and technologies to pose and answer questions about spatial distributions and patterns on Earth.
STANDARD 1.2 (Creation and Performance) All students will utilize those skills, media, methods, and technologies appropriate to each art form in the creation, performance, and presentation of dance, music, theater, and visual art.
D. Visual Arts
Individually or collaboratively create two and three-dimensional works of art employing the elements and principles of art.
Materials and Resources:
Map: A drawing showing the locations of different places as if you were looking at it from above
Symbol: A picture or icon that stands for something else
Cardinal directions: The directions of north, east, south, west
Map Legend: The part of the map that tells what the shapes and symbols mean
Compass: the symbol on the map that shows the cardinal directions
The teacher will elicit the students prior knowledge: What is a map? What does it look like? What do we use one for? Why are they important? The teachers will then show some example maps e.g. maps of area of school that students are attending or of local areas of interest (Google maps or mapquest are great sources of images that would work well for this. Maps from a social science text books would also work well). In so doing, teacher should highlight examples of map symbols and engage students in a discussion of how to find out what symbols on a map mean.
Accommodations and Modification:
Assessment / Anchor Activity / Homework (if lesson goes shorter than planned)
Provide students with maps or pictures with scale bars. Have them measure distances between two places, or the size of an item on the map / picture and convert it back to scale units. Alternately, give students a scenario where a building of a given size must be located at a specific location on a map and ask them to sketch what it would look like, to scale on the original map.
In the few minutes of class provide each student with an index card and have them write on it
Collect the cards as the students leave and use the results to see if there are any ideas clearly in need of review at the start of the next class before starting in on the next lesson plan.
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© 2009. Louise Wootton Edited by Claire Gallagher
Although the information in this document has been funded wholly or in part by the United States Environmental Protection Agency under assistance agreement NE97262206 to Georgian Court University, it has not gone through the Agency's publications review process and, therefore, may not necessarily reflect the views of the Agency and no official endorsement should be inferred.