European beachgrass (Ammophila
arenaria ). While
this is not available locally, it is available
online and from catalogs for import
from California/Oregon but
would be devastating to the local ecology if planted here.
(Leymus mollis )- This is a native
species to North America but is not indigenous as far south
as NJ. It occurs
from Massachusetts north through the Canadian Maritimes and in the
Pacific Northwest. This plant would not be
adapted to our hot, dry summers and would not
thrive locally. (Photo
credit Cassondra Skinner @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS
Sea oats (Uniola
paniculata )- Commercially
available genetic stock of this species would not be adapted long term
to our climate. It may live one to a few seasons here but would probably
die in the first harsh winter.
Northern sea oats (Chasmanthium
latifolium)-although the common name implies that it grows on the
dune, this species is actually a forested, floodplain species and needs
some shade and moisture to survive. It gets it name from the likeness of
the seedhead to sea oats.
Rugosa Rose (Rosa
rugosa). While many people love this species for
its pretty pink blooms and large red rose hips, this is a non-native
plant and should be avoided when restoring native dunes. Beach
plum and bay bush are native plants with high habitat value that would
be better choices for planting in areas in which Rugosa rose might be
being considered for planting.
Rose (Rosa multiflora ). The sweet
smell of this plant's flowers and
its easy propagation
makes it a tempting low maintenance “fence”
species. Unfortunately it forms
impenetrable thickets that smother out other
vegetation and are not used as habitat by
Salt Cedar (Tamarisk
sp.). Its extreme
salt tolerance makes it a common choice for shore
gardeners. While this plant is not too
invasive in dry areas, it is a real threat in
riparian areas and its planting should be avoided.
Japanese Black Pine
) is highly used by landscapers
in coastal communities due to its
tolerance to salt and poor soil.
Unfortunately it creates a monoculture of
one species, and one
of low genetic diversity.
Monocultures are particularly susceptible to
predators and diseases.
Asiatic and large headed sedges
(Carex kobomugi and C. macrocephala). Neither of
these is available at nurseries locally, but again they are available
via the internet and mail order. Both of these species are
non native and C. kobomugi is highly invasive in New
Jersey. Both are low growing sedges that don't catch sand as well
as the native beach grass, resulting in long, low dunes that are less
able to protect the communities behind them from flooding. It also
decimates plant diversity on the dunes and reduces habitat value for
many shore animals.